PLATEAU PEACE BUILDING AGENCY (PPBA)

Office of the Executive Governor,
Plateau State.

...towards a Plateau at Peace with itself and the rest of the world.
PPBA

Breakdown of conflict issues and emerging fault lines in Plateau State

S/No LGA Issues Actors Interest Dynamics Chronology Intensity Of
Conflict
1 Jos South Rural Banditry Incidents of armed robbery and cattle rusting are often perpetrated by unknown gunmen.? Rural banditry is largely attributed to the quest for economic gains. Presently, there is widespread availability of small arms and light weapons (SALWs) coupled with high rates of substance abuse among the young further aggravating tensions. Between January and October 2014, over 100 cows were reported to have been rustled.?Between 2016 and 2017, incidents of robbery and criminality surged. High
2 Jos South Land/Boundary Disputes Berom and Irigwe Access to land and its contents The increase in illegal mining which has led to disputes over land and boundaries.? In 2017, a dispute turned violent between local miners from Gyel District in Jos South Local Government Area and Miango in Bassa Local Government. High
3 Jos South Natural Resources Conflict (Farmers/Herders and Mining Conflict) Conflicts have frequently occurred between Fulani and Berom farmers over natural resources such as land and water.?Increase in mining activities has created disputes in some communities. Incidents of violent clashes between farmers and herders have declined. However, there are concerns regarding the possibility of relapse to violence following the onset of the rainy seasons.?Illegal mining is also on the increase. Given that mining destroys soil for farming, land disputes are likely to increase. Suspected Fulani herdsmen have attacked villages on numerous occasions. In March 2015, up to 500 people were killed during an attack on Dogo Nahawa. Ratsat Zot Village.In 2017, a dispute turned violent between local miners from Gyel district in Jos South Local Government Area and Miango in Bassa Local Government. High
4 Jos South Proliferation of Small and Light Weapons Local artisans and community members. Communities amass weapons to protect themselves from violence.??Local artisans manufacture weapons for economic gains. Widespread availability of arms in communities has led to a steep rise in crime such as robbery, rape and isolated killings. Deployment of SALWs as instruments of choice in perpetrating crimes, organized attacks on communities and violent conflict from 2001 to date. High
5 Jos South Ethno-Religious Conflict Much of the violence in Jos South is between indigenous tribes (predominantly Christians) and Hausa Fulani settlers (predominantly Muslims) Animosities between parties have been attributed to the quest for an inclusive society.? The conflict led to the reconfiguration of settlement patterns compounding issues of mutual distrust and suspicion between parties.? Episodes of mass violence have occurred in 1994, 1998, 2001, 2008 and 2010.??In February, March and June 2012. Three churches were bombed, killing several people and leading reprisal attacks. High
6 Jos South Electoral Violence? Struggle over ownership of Jos has led to violent clashes between Hausa Fulani Muslims and Christians following Local Government elections in Jos North Forthcoming local Government elections raise concerns of a recurrence.Apprehensions are also arising regarding the lack of a specific date for the elections. In 2008, Local Government elections resorted to widespread violence in Jos North, spilling over to Jos South. Moderate
7 Jos South Indigene/Settler Dichotomy Violent conflicts between Hausa Fulani and indigenous Christians have occurred regarding indigene and settler rights. Hostilities can be attributed to the desire for an inclusive society. Mutual distrust and suspicion between parties is evident in segregated settlements in the area.? Episodes of violence have occurred in 1994, 2001, 2004, 2008 and 2010. High
8 Jos South Drug Abuse Youths and security operatives? Economic empowerment? High rates of youth unemployment have increased the menace. High
9 Jos North Rural Banditry The youth constitute the bulk of perpetrators. Economic gains Incidents of cattle theft, robbery and rape have increased distrust among parties and often sparked episodes of violence.? The occurrences of these events are increasing at an alarming rate.?? High
10 Jos North Land/Boundary Disputes Disputes over land between three major actors namely, Berom vs. Afizere, Anaguta vs. Berom, Anaguta vs.? Hausa/Fulani Land and the benefits derivable from it. The decline in conflict between Hausa and? indigenous tribes is giving? rise to disputes that were? previously suppressed? between? indigenous? tribes High
11 Jos North Natural Resources Conflict: (Farmers/Herders clashes, Land disputes, Mining rights and control, Chieftaincy tussles, Grazing routes, Environmental degradation, Climate change The actors are diverse.? They include: Fulani herdsmen, sedentary farmers, youths etc The overriding interest is for economic benefits or gain. Increasing scarcity of land as well as the rates of unemployment and poverty? prompts the rise in natural resource conflict Moderate
12 Jos North Proliferation of Small and Light Weapons Individuals, groups and communities increasingly amass weapons as a self defense mechanism Self defense and criminality The proliferation of SALW in Jos North is at an alarming rate. These weapons are often used in perpetrating crime and criminality as well as in fighting the circles of ethno-religious conflict that have bedeviled the area. Since 2001 to date, SALWS have been the weapon of choice in the circles of violent conflict that have repeatedly engulfed Jos North LGA. High
13 Jos North Ethno-Religious Conflict The Hausa & Fulani community (mainly Muslims) on the one hand, and the Berom, Afizere, Anaguta and other ethnic groups mainly Christian on the other hand.?? The quest for inclusion, recognition, socioeconomic and political advantages and dominance. Mutual suspicion and? mistrust? between? parties? is? manifested in segregated? settlements and schools? in almost all communities sin Jos? North LGA Ethno-religious conflicts or violence have occurred in 1994, 2001, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2017, and 2021. High
14 Jos North Electoral Violence? Political parties, ethnic interest groups, government, security agencies, youth groups Economic benefits derivable from access and control of political power.? The forthcoming Local Government election (scheduled for 9th October, 2021) raises concerns of a possible recurrence.? The 2008 Local Government Election resulted in widespread violence in Jos North High
15 Jos North Indigene/Settler Dichotomy Hausa/Fulani community and Berom Anaguta and Afizere ethnic groups The quest or struggle for recognition and access to socioeconomic and political benefits and privileges. This has been protracted and has further deepened mutual distrust and resentment as evident by the rise of segregated settlement including schools along ethnic and religious divides in Jos metropolis. This has been sustained since 2001 to date. High
16 Jos North Drug Abuse Mainly the youth and security agents Economic gains.? This has been on the increase Frequent occurrences. High
17 Mangu Rural Banditry Incidents of armed robbery and cattle rustling are often perpetrated by youth and unknown gun men. Rural banditry is largely attributed to the quest for economic gains.? Proliferation of small arms and light weapons,? absence of? adequate? security? operatives? in villages High
18 Mangu Land/Boundary Disputes Berom and? Mwaghavul? Access to land to expand territory and political might. The quest for political? power? leads to disputes over? land and boundaries Moderate
19 Mangu Natural Resources Conflict (Farmers/Herders and Mining Conflict) Conflicts have frequently occurred between Fulani herdsmen, indigenous Mwaghavul and Pyem farmers during harvest.? Concerns that during harvest, the Fulani herdsmen often bring their cattle to feed on the farm? ? assuming that harvest has ? been concluded.? High
20 Mangu Proliferation of Small and Light Weapons Youths and local artisans. Communities amass weapons to protect themselves from violence. Local artisans? manufacture? weapons for economic gains?? Widespread? availability of? SALWs in communities across the state has led to a? rise? in crime? such as? robbery, and? isolated? killings High

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