PLATEAU PEACE BUILDING AGENCY (PPBA)

Office of the Executive Governor,
Plateau State.

...towards a Plateau at Peace with itself and the rest of the world.
PPBA

TIMELINE OF ARMED CONFLICTS AND GOVERNMENT RESPONSES IN PLATEAU STATE

S/No Date Conflict Location Actors/Causes Fatality/Property Lost Government Response Source
1 12th April, 1994 1994 Jos riots. Riot instigated by the appointment of Alhaji Mato as sole Administrator of Jos North LGA, was rejected by Indigenous groups Jos Alhaji Mato, Hausa-Fulani vs Indigenes (Berom, Anaguta and Afizere). Remote Cause: A recurrent friction between the Berom, Anaguta And Afizere on the one hand, and on the other, the Hausa-Fulani community over the ownership of Jos. Immediate cause: Appointment of Alhaji Mato as Sole Administrator Of Jos North L.G.A Five persons lost their lives. Part of Jos Main Market was burnt. Properties destroyed in Gada Biyu 1. The appointment was reversed by the State Government. 2. The Nigerian Police Force restored law and order. 3. The Hon Justice Fiberisima Commission was inaugurated to investigate the disturbances. 4. Government is yet to implement the white paper from the Commission of inquiry report See Plateau State Government White Paper, 2009 See Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS)
2 Sum total of annual death rate 5
3 1995 - Mangu Bokkos Crisis Conflict begin to generate between the Mangu and Bokkos border communities in 1992 and became a full blunt violence in 1995 over boundary disputes Mangu-Bokkos border communities 1. Actors: Mwaghavul, Ron and Mushere. 2. Cause: boundary disputes Many houses and properties destroyed Security agents were deployed to restore law and order You can consult Ambe-Uva, 2010: African Journal of History and Culture vol 2(3)
4 Sum total of annual death rate
5 1997 Gyero road crisis A clash occurred between the Berom from Bukuru Gyel with Hausa-Fulani after a Berom man was killed by a Hausa Farmer for picking a fruit (Garden Egg, Yallow) without permission belonging to a Hausa-Fulani dry season Farmer. Hausa settlement Gyero road. Bukuru Jos South L.G.A 1. Actors: Berom from Gyel vs Hausa Fulani dry season Farmers. 2. Remote: competition over resources, resentment over perceived disrespect of the Beroms by the Hausa. 3. Immediate cause: killing of a Berom man by a Hausa Farmer About six people died in the violence 1. Security agents were deployed to restore law and order in Bukuru, Jos South LGA. 2. A number of people were arrested See Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS)
6 Sum total of annual death rate Sum of 6
7 2001, Sep 7th - 13th Jos crisis There was an outbreak of hostility and mass killing in Jos in 2001. The case, which contributed most directly to the outbreak of the September 2001 violence, was the controversial appointment of the Poverty Eradication Coordinator in Jos North in August, a few weeks before the crisis. Jos North and South LGAs, there were reprisal in some LGAs across the State 1. Actors: Alhaji Muktar a Hausa-Fulani (Muslim) vs Indigenous group and Christians generally. 2. Remote cause: contest over ownership of Jos, political competition, indigene vs settler issue. 3. Immediate cause: appointment of Alhaji Muktar as NAPEP Coordinator for Jos North LGA; the appointment was rejected by Indigenous groups (Afizere, Berom and Anaguta). 4. Immediate trigger: altercation when a young woman tried to pass through a road blocked by a Muslim congregation on the Juma?at Prayer at Prayer Death toll estimated at about 1000. Destruction of property and places of worship unprecedented 1. Deployment of security forces to douse tension and halt hostility. 2. Imposition of curfew 3. Presidential visit to assess damage and condole with the State. 4. Inauguration of Hon justice Nikki Tobe Judicial Commission of inquiry into the conflict See Plateau State Government white paper, on the 2001 crisis in Jos; also see krause, 2011; Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS); and Ambe-Uva, 2010: African Journal of History and Culture vol 2(3)
8 Sum total of annual death rate About 1000
9 May, 2002 - the Eto-Baba Crisis Fighting erupt at PDP ward congress in Eto-Baba Jos North, Angwan Rukuba, Eto-Baba and Nasarawa Gwom Indigenous groups vs Hausa-Fulani (Muslims). Remote cause: political competition between Indigenous group vs Hausa Fulani. Immediate cause: pandemonium at congress due to invasion of congress by thousands of Hausa Fulani supporters perceived to be mercenaries by Indigenous groups At least a hundred persons killed and properties destroyed 1. Deployment of security forces to quell the Crisis. 2. Reinforcement of security measures in the city to check spillover See Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS)
10 Sum total of annual death rate At least 100
11 June, 2002 Crisis rocked Yelwa ? Shendam over the prohibition on relationships that Christians placed between their women with Muslim men which led to a fight on the street in the Angwan Pandam area of the town on the night of 26th June, resulting in the death of a Christian man. Yelwa in Shendam LGA Goemai, Taroh(predominantly Christians) vs Hausa-Fulani and Jarawa who have migrated to the area since the late 19th century (predominantly Muslims). Immediate cause: clash between Muslim and Christian youths as a result of a masquerade parade and the stabbing of the security man guiding the Mosques at Angwan Galambi (conco). Inter-ethnic and religious relationships between men and women. Remote causes: political competition, the unrest in Jos and the general insecurity in the zone contest over traditional leadership and ownership of Yelwa About five hundren were killed. Houses and properties destroyed, numerous Churches and Mosque were destroyed. Thousands were displaced to neighbouring States and LGAs 1. The Shendam local Government Chairman called religious and community leaders of Yelwa to an emergency meeting in Shendam that afternoon, to try to resolve the tension peacefully, and leaders agreed to try to prevent further violence. 2. Plateau Peace Conference of Ethnic Nationalities Indigenous and Settlers, and other interest group 3. Declaration of State of emergency.4. Convening of peace workshop for stakeholder See Higiza, 2010, Para-Mallam (ed), 2011, (NIPSS)
12 Sum total of annual death rate About 500
13 2002 - 2004 Wase communal clash The Wase Crisis started as a result of the killing of four prominent Taroh people whom where invited for a peace meeting at the emirate. They were alleged to have been killed in the center of the city on their way back after they have concluded the peace meeting Wase town, kardarko and other communities in the LGA Taroh vs Hausa-Fulani, bhogom. Remote cause: contestations over ownership of the LGA between the Taroh, bhogom and Hausa-Fulani. Competition over land and traditional leadership. Immedaite trigger: The assassination of four prominent Taroh elders who were invited for a peace meeting by the emir of Wase on 3rd July. Immediate cause: the spillover of the Yelwa Crisis and expulsion of mostly Fulani from Langtang to Wase People killed in their hundreds and another thousands displaced 1. The constitution of Judicial panel of inquiry into communal clashes in Wase, headed by Justice J. Sankey 2. Deployment of mobile Police units and military to the area. 3. The setting up of peace and reconciliation committees in the LGA See Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS); Government white paper
14 Sum total of annual death rate No estimate
15 May, 2004 Yelwa Crisis Yelwa was turned into a ghost town when Christian militias attack the town in retaliation to the murders and sacking of Christians from the town in February Yelwa in Shendam LGA. The violence has also spread to Langtang North and Langtang South and Wase Goemai, Taroh (predominantly Christians) vs Hausa-Fulani and Jarawa (predominantly Muslims). Immediate cause: murder of 46 Christians and subsequent killing of many others and expulsion of the remaining Christians population in Yelwa in February. Remote cause: political competition, contest over traditional leadership, spillover of sentiment from the Jos Crisis About 700 people, mostly Muslim men were killed, most houses were destroyed and thousands were displaced 1. The declaration of State of emergency in the State at large by former president Olusegun Obasanjo. 2. The consolidation of internal security measure by deployment of military to the area. 3. The constitution of the Plateau peace conference Report of the special committee on Yelwa conflict
16 Sum total of annual death rate About 700
17 November, 2008 Jos Crisis The local Government election Crisis in Jos North that later spread to other part of the State Jos and environs Hausa-Fulani vs Afizere, Anaguta Berom and Christians in general. Immediate cause: the LGA elections of the 27th November in Jos North LGA. Remote cause: the unresolved issues of indigeneity and ownership of Jos. Political competition More than 1000 people were killed. Numerous homes, properties, places of worship, vehicles were destroyed. Thousands were also displaced to neighboring States 1. The imposition of 24 hours curfew on the city of Jos and its environs, it was later relaxed. 2. The constitution and the inauguration of the Hon justice Bola Ajibola led Commission of inquiry into the November 28th 2008 unrest in Jos and the environs. 3. The Emmanuel Abisoye panel of investigation into the Jos Crisis by the federal Government. 4. An ad-hoc panel by the national assembly was also constituted to look into the Jos crises Government white paper, 2014
18 Sum total of annual death rate Above 1000
19 Jan, 2010 Jos Crisis Dispute between Christians and Muslims in Nasarawa Gwom area of Jos North which later spiral to Jos South LGA Jos North and Jos South Indigenous groups (Berom, Anaguta and Afizere), Christians in general vs Hausa-Fulani Muslims. Immediate cause: dispute between Christians and Muslims in Nasarawa Gwom area of the city. Remote cause: the unresolved issues of indigeneity and ownership of Jos. Political competition More than 400 people were killed during the violence 1. The creation of the Special Joint Military task force with the duty of maintaining law and order in Jos and environs under the command of the goc of the 3rd armour division, Rukuba, Major Gen. Saleh Maina. 2. The task force was initially made up of personnel from the army, air force and the navy but later included the Police. 3. Imposition of a 24 hours curfew on the city and environs. 4. Reinforcement of the security apparatus in Jos and environs Government white paper, 2014
20 March, 2010, Dogo-nahawa massacre An attack on the sleeping community by people suspected to be Fulani militias in Dogo-nahawa, zat and rasat villages in Jos South LGA Jos South LGA Berom, Christians vs Hausa-Fulani. Immediate cause: reprisal for previous attacks by members of the Berom ethnic group on Fulani. Remote cause: contest of political and economic, superiority and control of Jos between the Indigenous groups and the settler Hausa-Fulani community who are also claiming indigene status. More than 300 people comprising women and children were killed 1. Security Agencies were put on high alert. The inspector general of Police pledge to deploy more security personnel to rural outpost. 1. A special presidential committee to look into the causes and suggest a comprehensive strategy for conflict resolution under the Chairmanship of chief Solomon lar, former Governor of the State was constituted. 2. About 200 persons were arrested on suspicion of having been complicit in the 7th March massacre See Para-Mallam (ed), 2011 (NIPSS)

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